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Introduction

Plant

Cannabis is a flowering plant, all parts of which provide a variety of uses, some therapeutic and some utilitarian. The seeds of the cannabis plant can be used as a food source and the stalks can be processed for use in creating paper, rope, and clothing. The medicinal properties of the plant are yielded through the use of the cannabis leaves, roots, and especially: flowers.

Only female cannabis plants can grow flowers, or "buds", that are cultivated for human consumption. Colas, the site at which flower buds are found, are formed along the entirety of the cannabis plant, but are most prevalent and dense at the very top.

Sativa and Indica are two different species of the Cannabis genus. A hybrid strain will be a combination of Sativa and Indica parents. While all of these are cannabis, Sativa and Indica showcase different physical traits and medicinal benefits. Zen Leaf™ understands that every patient is different and our team will help you during this journey into medical cannabis to find relief.

Types of Strains

Sativa

Cannabis Sativa plants were originally found in warmer climates, typically between 0-30 degrees latitude. These plants are tall in stature, with long, narrow leaves. The flowers (buds) are typically lighter in color and less dense than indicas. Common effects are uplifting, energetic, alert, and are cerebral focused.

Indica

Cannabis Indica plants were originally found in cooler climates, typically between 30-50 degrees latitude. These plants are short in stature, with wide, broad leaves. The flowers (buds) are typically darker in color and compact. Common effects are muscle relaxation, anti-insomnia, anti-nausea, and whole body focused.

Hybrid

Hybrid strains are a result of growers breeding Sativa and Indica strains together to isolate the best traits of both stains. Some hybrids exhibit relaxing or uplifting effects, where they are classified as Indica-Dominant Hybrids or Sativa-Dominant Hybrids.

Cannabinoids

Learn about the chemical compounds responsible for the medical relief that cannabis provides.

THCA

(Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid)
THCA is the most abundant cannabinoid found in cannabis and is the in-active raw form of THC. THCA is not psychoactive and still offers anti-inflammatory and anti-nausea qualities. This cannabinoid becomes active through smoking, vaping and decarboxylating.

THC

(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
THC is the active compound associated with cannabis’ psychoactive effects. Possible therapeutic benefits of THC include; pain relief, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and bronchodilator. Primarily affects CB1 Receptors in the endocannabinoid system.

CBDA

(Cannabidiolic acid)
CBDA is the in-active raw form of CBD, offering anti-inflammatory and anti-nausea benefits. This cannabinoid becomes active through smoking, vaping and decarboxylating.

CBD

(Cannabidiol)
Does not bind primarily to CB1 or CB2 receptors, but acts as a regulator in the endocannabinoid system and helps modulate other receptors and transmitters. Benefits of CBD include; anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsive, antidepressant, and anti-nausea.

CBDN

(Cannabinol)
CBN has a higher affinity to CB2 receptors over the CB1 receptors in the endocannabinoid system. CBN is psychoactive but more drowsy or sedative than THC making it better suited for insomnia. This cannabinoid is often associated with Indica strains.

Cannabinoids

Endocannabinoids

Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring molecules produced in the human body that stimulate receptors found in the brain, organs, connective tissues, glands and immune cells. The Endocannabinoid system helps govern many aspects of our lives, including hunger, neuroplasticity, neuroprotection, pain modification, our immune system, and more. This system is found in every mammal and is named after the plant (cannabis) that led to its’ discovery in 1992.

Cannabinoid Receptors

The two primary receptors in the endocannabinoids system are Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 (CB1) and Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 (CB2). The cannabinoids found in cannabis mimic those naturally created in the endocannabinoid system and affect these receptors.

Discovered in 1990, CB1 receptors are primarily located on the nerve cells in the brain’s spinal cord, but are also found in some peripheral organs and tissues. They tend to be associated with appetite, movement, posture, sensory perception, memory cognition, and emotion.

Discovered in 1992, CB2 receptors are primarily located on white blood cells and the outer tissue of the immune system. They tend to be associated with inflammation and pain.

Medicating with cannabis allows naturally occurring endocannabinoids to work hand in hand with the cannabinoids found in cannabis to create homeostasis in our bodies. This is why cannabis affects everyone differently.

Terpenes

Terpenes, in combination with cannabinoids, blend for specific therapeutic benefits and psychoactive results. Terpenes also determine the scent of specific strains. Depends on which receptors they are interacting with, terpenes can relax, energize, stimulate, or sedate the patient. When terpenes are blended with certain cannabinoids, growers and the engineers of specific strains can control the potency, activity, and feelings induced in the user. This makes for an ease of use and the possibility for all patients to find not only a comfortable strain but one that is tailored to the needs of their condition.

Limonene

Limonene is associated with citrus aromas, It is a powerful medical aid when combined with certain cannabinoids to provide stress-relief, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects as well as digestive aid and relief of stomach pain.

Linalool

This terpene produces a floral or woody aroma and is found in high concentration in lavender. Linalool is one of the oldest sedatives in recorded history and provides anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects, pain-relief, and acts as a muscle relaxant.

Myrcene

This terpene is responsible for the earthy or clove aromas. Myrcene passes through the blood brain barrier allowing for a higher uptake of cannabinoids. It has been found to have the following medical uses: pain relief, antioxidant effects, muscle relaxant, and anti-carcinogenic effects.

Pinene

A common terpene with the aroma of pine, rosemary, dill, basil, or parsley. It is known to provide some medical benefits. These benefits include: anti-inflammatory effects, pain relief, and inducing of an alert mind state.

β(beta) Caryophyllene

Caryophyllene (or β-Caryophyllene) is a spicy, peppery terpene found in many different edible plants. It is also the only terpene known to interact with the CB2 receptor without interfering with THC intake.
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